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The Attitudes-Behaviors Corrective (ABC) Model of Violent Extremism


Authors: James Khalil, John Horgan &  Martine Zeuthen

Date of Publication: 18/12/2019

Journal / Publisher: Terrorism and Political Violence


Purpose of the study

Key questions 

The study addresses reviews some of the existing models showing pathways to violent extremism and suggests a new model which shows where an individual is on their journey through radicalisation. They consider that Violent Extremists and Extremists should be considered as undergoing separate pathways and that only a limited number of extremists commit extremist violence.  

Design of the study


The approach is a combination of theoretical (model based) and uses case studies and questions definitions. The case studies cover Islamic Extremism, Republican Terrorism.  


Mobilisation to Violence

Key recommendations 

The study recommends that it is better to ‘de-couple’ the pathways of non-violent and violent extremists due to the fact that very few extremists actually commit violent acts.

Reviewer's Notes

Many studies and commentators note that only a small number of extremists commit violence, but non-violent extremists can contribute to that violence in other ways, such as:

  • Fundraising
  • Recruiting 
  • Providing encouragement validating and/or glorifying the actions of violent extremists. 
  • Providing logistical support e.g. safe houses, acting as couriers/messengers.


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